Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS)
Ouédraogo, Nadia S. (2013), Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS), Energy Economics, 36, p. 636-647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2012.11.011
TypeArticle accepté pour publication ou publié
Journal nameEnergy Economics
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Author(s)Ouédraogo, Nadia S.
Abstract (EN)Access to modern energy is believed to be a prerequisite for sustainable development, poverty alleviation and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. However, theoretical models and empirical results offer conflicting evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth that we remain largely unsure of the cause-and-effect nature of this relationship, if indeed a relationship exists at all. This paper tests, in a panel context, the long-run relationship between energy access, and economic growth for fifteen African countries from 1980 to 2008 by using recently developed panel cointegration techniques. We adopt a three-stage approach, consisting of panel unit root, panel cointegration and Granger causality tests to study the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy prices and growth as well as relationship between electricity consumption, prices and growth. Results show that GDP and energy consumption as well as GDP and electricity move together in the long-run. By estimating these long-run relationships and testing for causality using panel-based error correction models, we found unidirectional long-run and short-run causality. The causality is running from GDP to energy consumption in the short-run, and from energy consumption to GDP in the long-run. There is also evidence of unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to GDP in the long-run. This study thus provides empirical evidence of long-run and causal relationships between energy consumption and economic growth for our sample of fifteen countries; suggesting that lack or limited access to modern energy services could hamper economic growth and compromise the development prospects of these countries.
Subjects / KeywordsEnergy; Electricity; GDP; Panel cointegration test; VECM; ECOWAS
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